Budget and capacity constraints have also severely curtailed the effective management of these areas. While the natural ecological role of fire must be recognised, the exposure of communities, agriculture and business to large, devastating fires in the recent past has emphasised the need for an integrated approach to fire management in the affected regions.
The impact of wild fires in natural vegetation on the poorest of the poor, particularly the rural poor, cannot be overstated. It is those living at the margins who are always the most vulnerable. In the case of rural informal settlements (and also in the case of some of the urban settlements), these are located physically at the margin, in the transition zone between densely settled land and land carrying high fuel loads. Whether these fuel loads are the result of alien invasive plants or the lack of integrated veld management (including fuel reduction strategies) in the natural veld, the consequence is the same. It is high fire risk, and it is the inhabitants of the adjacent informal settlements that bear the brunt of such unmanaged risk. The direct losses are in terms of:
- loss of life, and disability, due to vegetation fires;
- loss of housing and possessions when thatched or wooden dwellings ignite, and
- loss of grazing, crops, livestock and subsistence natural resources.
Of equal – if not greater – importance is the “knock-on” effect of wild fires on rural economies. The forestry sector in the Eastern Cape makes a significant contribution to the rural economy and local employment. Situated in the mountainous areas of the province, mostly invisible from the major roads, the sector has received little attention in the past. With a looming national timber shortage, the dire need for rural economic development, and investment in major new wood processing capacity, it is becoming recognised that the forestry sector plays a legitimate and significant role in the local economy.
With the help of the strategic partners the SA National Government, Department of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF), provincial Disaster Management Centres and the Working on Fire programme (WoF), the Umbrella Association can positively contribute to the effective control of wild fires across the province and assist Local Councils with fires in their municipal areas.
The answer in addressing most of these issues are Integrated Fire Management.
1 RISK ASSESSMENT
Fire ecology, history and behaviour
Proper mapping to inform decision making
Quantification of risk – social environmental and economic
Capacity and resource audits
2 STAKEHOLDER ORGANISATION
3 FIRE MANAGEMENT PLANNING
Risk reduction measures including fuel load management, fire breaks and compliance
4 DETECTION & SUPPRESSION
Implementation of rehabilitation plans
6 RECORD-KEEPING / M&E
M&E data collection and analysis
KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
The ECUFPA will assist and encourage all its FPA members and provide the necessary advice and supply relevant information to member FPAs on aspects of veld and forest fires.
For the basic functioning of any FPA, the following will apply:
- General Strategies
This includes actions such as supportive fire awareness campaigns at the beginning of the fire season and poster campaigns in the higher risk areas.
- Integrated Wildfire management plans
These actions include fire prevention as well as fire suppression and recovery plans in cases where wild fires caused damage. These plans must be drawn up with the Disaster Management Centres (DMC) to be incorporated into the disaster management frameworks of the province.
- Specific asset protection strategies
These actions include the burning of fire breaks around homesteads on farms and farm boundaries, plantations, under power lines and fuel reduction strategies such as under canopy burning.
To be successful the Umbrella FPA will have to focus on the following key indicators. They are:
- Advise and assist Fire Protection Associations to be sustainable
- Promote Financial Sustainability of FPAs
- Improve Communication Channels
- Coordination and management of Aerial support
- Assist with the Coordination of Ground support
- Promote the principle of the Incident Command System (ICS) in the Eastern Cape
- Assist FPAs in organizing Training through Accredited Providers
- Assist and advise FPAs with Administration and Legal compliance
- Assist and advise to compile Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)
- Assist in the Implementation of Integrated Fire Management Strategies
KPI 1: Advise and assist Fire Protection Associations to be sustainable
The ECUFPA will promote and support effective and sustainable FPAs within the Eastern Cape Province. This would include reconfiguration and a governance options for FPAs to be assessed.
- Determine management capabilities of existing FPAs and strengthen them.
- New FPAs may be advised and assisted to become functional FPAs to exercise their mandate under the act.
- Assist to restructure FPAs into a long term sustainable model.
- Assist in the registration process of new and or restructured FPAs.
- Assist FPAs in meeting minimum management standards and advise on the development of Standard Operational Procedures.
- Encourage the formation of District structures to represent the District Municipalities and FPAs within the Eastern Cape geographical areas.
- Assist FPAs to integrate Municipalities to their fire prevention strategies.
- Promote fire awareness efforts together with relevant stakeholders.
KPI 2: Promote Financial Sustainability of FPAs
The ECUFPA will promote financial sustainability amongst its members.
- Establish and maintain appropriate partnerships.
- Develop funding proposals to the mutual benefit of all member FPAs in the Eastern Cape.
- The UFPA will facilitate the distribution of available funds and resources to member FPAs.
- Provide the link between Government Programs, Initiatives and Strategies. (Integrated Development Plans, Poverty Alleviation, Skills and Social Development.)
- Promote relevant funding projects in the Eastern Cape, eg. GEF FynbosFire.
- The UFPA may act as an agent in securing funding and resources through its strategic partners, including levies and fees from stakeholders.
- The financial distribution will be a transparent and fair process to ensure the functionality of member FPAs.
KPI 3: Improve Communication Channels
The ECUFPA will provide a platform for effective communication between FPAs, Strategic Partners, Stakeholders and Government.
- Regular communication to member FPAs. (Electronic media and website will be the main communication medium.)
- The ECUFPA will be represented on various Local, Provincial and National platforms affecting FPA operations and influence the implementation of fire management programs.
- Liaise and negotiate with provincial and local government structures on matters based on common interests and duties regarding the annual fire season fire prohibition periods and duties of stakeholders.
- The ECUFPA will communicate feedback to the members via the Operations Committee (OPCO) and district meetings.
- The ECUFPA will centralise the communication of weather data and fire danger rating (FDR) via e-mail communication and its website.
- Maintain good communication channels with DAFF and other stakeholders.
KPI 4: Coordination and Management of Aerial support
The ECUFPA will be required to source through FFA operations (trading as Working on Fire) or them failing, through other available sources. Control and coordination of the placement of all aerial resources will be managed by the UFPA.
- Establish Memorandum of Agreement or contracts between ECUFPA and WoF or relevant service provider.
- Establish Memorandum of Agreement between ECUFPA and Provincial Disaster Management.
- Keep contracts in place between ECUFPA and companies making use of aerial resources.
- The ECUFPA will be required to assist in sourcing, control and coordinate the placement of all aerial resources through the WoF programme or any other available service provider.
- With the disaster management frameworks in place these resources will be managed for the benefit of all stakeholders in the province.
KPI 5: Assist with the Coordination of Ground support
The ECUFPA sees the need to assist and support ground operations within the Eastern Cape. A close relationship between Working on Fire and the ECUFPA is essential.
- Establish Memorandum of Agreement or contracts between ECUFPA and Working on Fire or relevant service provider.
- Placement and movements of WoF teams must be done through WoF dispatch.
- Represent the EC FPAs on the WoF Implementation meetings.
KPI 6: Promote the principle of the Incident Command System (ICS) in the Eastern Cape
The ECUFPA supports and promotes the use of ICS during wildfire suppression operations.
- Ensure that all member FPAs understand and adopt ICS policies and procedure.
- Facilitate accredited ICS training.
- The UFPA together with WoF may provide an incident command function for the province in case of extreme wild fires.
- Establish or integrate with existing incident command structures and assist the Disaster Management Centres (DMC) by mobilizing and deployment of resources in cases of wild fires or other disasters in the province.
- Establish Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with PDMC for the deployment of ICS resources.
- The ECUFPA in conjunction with WoF will establish an ICS command centre.
- An ICS radio network will be established by the ECUFPA which may be utilized at major incidents.
KPI 7: Assist FPAs in organizing Training through Accredited Providers
ECUFPA supports skills development and capacity building based on accredited training. The focus is on supporting FPAs and their members that are directly responsible for the implementation of integrated fire management activities within their regions.
- Establish training needs and recommend suitable service providers.
- Source funding and provide subsidised training.
- Communicate available training opportunities.
- Identify skill shortages within FPAs to determine specific training needs.
- Training and refresher training may be arranged through the UFPA with accredited training providers.
- Facilitate FPA Management training.
KPI 8: Assist and advise FPAs with Administration and Legal compliance
The association can assist the member FPAs with registration, functionality and legal compliance.
- Assess administration skills and competency levels of FPAs and determine the level of legal compliance via internal assessments in consultation with DAFF.
- Promote uniform administration systems to assist FPAs.
- Centralise negotiations and membership with Government departments and parastatals.
- The UFPA will centralise the communication of weather data and fire danger rating (FDR).
- Assist members with mapping and fire season planning ensuring all UFPA members comply with legislation.
- The UFPA may advise members with legal matters if requested.
KPI 9: Assist and advise to compile Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)
The ECUFPA supports and promotes SOP in order to provide generic implementation guidelines and efficient protocols between WOF, FPAs, ECUFPA, PDMC and DM’s.
- Distribute relevant SOP’s to all member FPAs.
- Distribute SOP’s to stakeholders for inputs.
- Compare SOP’s with other UFPAs.
- Distribute ICS standard operating procedure.
KPI 10: Assist in the Implementation of Integrated Fire Management Strategies
The ECUFPA recognizes that the social and economic impact of wildfires can only be reduced by the effective planning and implementation of the Integrated Fire Management Principles.
- Provide a fire incident map for the province.
- Develop guidelines with all stakeholders required for the EC FPAs Integrated Fire Management Plan.
- Align FPA activities with Working on Fire, Working for Water and other Natural Resource Management programs.
Veldfires is an important natural hazard in South Africa. To be able to plan for fire incidences one must understand the fire risk, frequency and distribution in the province.
In compiling this section information is used from CSIR Report No: CSIR/NRE/ECO/ER/2010/0023/C, namely National Veldfire Risk Assessment: Analysis of Exposure of Social, Economic and Environmental Assets to Veldfire Hazards in South Africa by Authors: GG Forsyth, FJ Kruger and DC Le Maitre, March 2010.
- Fire regime and fire-ecology types
The “fire regime” is the history of fire in a particular vegetation type or area including the frequency, intensity and season of burning; it is the combination of elements that typifies fires in a given region, under assumed natural conditions.
A fire-ecology type is a class of vegetation types that is relatively uniform in terms of the fire regimes (e.g. frequency, season, intensity and size) within the constituent vegetation types.
Figure 1. The distribution of the 13 fire-ecology types based on the descriptions and distribution of the vegetation.
- Rural populations and veldfires:
Rural populations in South Africa affect fire activity and fire affect these communities adversely. Figure 2 clearly indicate the concentration of rural settlements in the Eastern Cape.
Figure 2. Indicative distribution of the rural population in the Eastern Cape. This shows only dispersed rural settlements, which account for the larger majority of rural people
- Veldfire risk levels in South Africa:
Extreme overall veldfire risk corresponds with the Sour Grassland and Moist Woodland fire- ecology types. In the Fynbos fire-ecology type such conditions only occur where there are commercial forestry plantations. In Coastal Grasslands and Arid Woodlands pockets of Extreme veldfire risk occur where there are dispersed rural settlements. In 48.2% of the province there is an Extreme veldfire risk, while it is High in 5.3%, Medium in 18.8% and Low in 27.8%. In areas of Extreme and High veldfire risk it is necessary to take precautions to safe guard lives, livelihoods, property and the environment.
Figure 3. Overall assessment of veldfire risk levels in the Eastern Cape.
It is important to look at fire danger within a municipal level. Refer to appendix 1 for detailed fire danger ratings per municipality.
- Fire Regions in the Eastern Cape:
The Eastern Cape is clearly divided into two distinct fire regions.
Summer rainfall area:
This includes the largest portion of the Eastern Cape. The eastern and northern regions predominantly have a summer rainfall season with mainly Grasslands, Savanna and a winter fire season.
Winter rainfall area:
The southern and in particular the Tsitsikamma area is predominantly a winter rainfall region with a summer fire season. This area does however link in with the Southern Cape that is widely regarded as an all year fire season.